Contact Us

Jalan Kecak, No. 12, Gatot Subroto Timur - Bali
Phone: +62 361 - 426699
Fax: +62 361 - 426700
Journal Manager Whatsapp: +62 852 2767 9500
Email: [email protected]

* Sorry for not offering email form due to massive spam issue

Perceived social distancing and hygienic practices in the restaurants during covid-19 pandemic: evaluation of restaurants’ future

Duygu Baskaya Sezer, Mustafa Daskin, Kenan Pala, Kübra Asan


This study was carried out to examine the applicability of COVID-19 pandemic rules and measures and the future of the restaurant sector in a Turkish context. In this survey, a total number of 218 usable questionnaires were personally retrieved via online from the respondents in the research location. A quantitative approach was adopted in this study and SPSS version 23 was employed in order to explain the data. In general, the results show that the people are mostly careful of the rules and guidelines. Significantly, some respondents around 30% did not agree on some items such as SD4, SD2 and H25 which should be taken into account. Demographically, the result shows that the individuals with graduate degrees scored the items of the survey lower than the others. This paper provides implications for authorities in terms of minimizing the effect of pandemics and maximizing the hygienic practices among restaurant operators in future. Theoretically, the current study by examining the applicability of COVID-19 pandemic rules and measures lends further contribution to the related literature.


Covid-19; hygiene practices; restaurant services

Full Text:



Anatolian Agent. (2019). Economy ( (accessed on June 2020).

Bagozzi, R.P., Yi, Y. (1988). On the evaluation of structural equation models. Journal of Academic Marketing Science, 16, 74-94.

Barclay, D.W., Thompson, R., Higgins, C. (1995). The partial least squares (PLS) approach to causal modeling: Personal computer adoption and use an illustration. Technology Studies, 2 (2), 285-309.

Brewer, P., Sebby, A. G. (2021). The effect of online restaurant menus on consumers’ purchase intentions during the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94.

Brizek, M. G., Frash, R. E., McLeod, B. M., Patience, M. O. (2021). Independent restaurant operator perspectives in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 93. 10.1016/j.ijhm.2020.102766.

Byrd, K., Her, E. S., Fan, A., Almanza, B., Liu, Y., Leitch, S. (2021). Restaurants and COVID-19: What are consumers’ risk perceptions about restaurant food and its packaging during the pandemic?. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 94.

Deloitte. (2020). COVID-19 Restoran Sektörünün Bugünü ve Geleceği ( (accessed on February 2021).

Field, A. (2000). Discovering Statistics using SPSS for Windows. London – Thousand Oaks New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Gallego, I., Font, X. (2020). Changes in air passenger demand as a result of the COVID-19 crisis: Using Big Data to inform tourism policy. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29 (9), 1470-1489.

Gössling, S., Scott, D., Hall, C. M. (2020). Pandemics, tourism and global change: A rapid assessment of COVID-19. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 29 (1), 1-20.

Hair J. F. Jr., Black W. C., Babin B. J., Anderson R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis (7th Edition). Pearson Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

İflazoğlu, N., Aksoy, M. (2020). A Study on the Quality of the Service Consumers Expect from Food and Beverage Enterprises During the COVID-19 Outbreak. Journal of Tourism and Gastronomy Studies, 8 (4), 3362-3377.

Kim, J., Kim, J., Wang, Y. (2021). Uncertainty risks and strategic reaction of restaurant firms amid COVID-19: Evidence from China. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92.

Kim, J., Lee, J. C. (2020). Effects of COVID-19 on preferences for private dining facilities in restaurants. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 45 (December), 67-70.

Lew, A. A., Cheer, J. M., Haywood, M., Brouder, P., Salazar, N. B. (2020). Visions of travel and tourism after the global COVID-19 transformation of 2020. Tourism Geographies, 22 (3), 455-466.

Ministry of Health Turkey. (2020). Covid-19 Salgın Yönetimi.

Nunnally, J.C. (1978). Psychometric Theory. McGraw-Hill, New York, NY.

Okat, Ç., Bahçeci, C., Ocak, E. (2020). Evaluating Impacts Of Covid-19 (New Coronavirus) Pandemıc Crisis On Food & Beverage Entreprises. International Journal of Contemporary Tourism Research, 2, 201-218.

Pala K., Daşkın M. (2021). Gastro-Tourısm: Tradıtıonal Amasya Gastronomy Recıpes. Iksad Publishing House, Ankara.

Song, H. J., Yeon, J., Lee, S. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic: Evidence from the U.S. restaurant industry’, International Journal of Hospitality Management, 92.

Statista. (2020). Share of restaurants paused their businesses due to coronavirus COVID-19 restrictions in China as of February 2020, by type of service.

The National Restaurant Association. (n.d.). 2021 state of the restaurant industry (accessed on February 2021).

United Nations World Tourism Organization. (2020). Tourism Back to 1990 Levels As Arrıvals Fall By More Than 70% ( (accessed on January 2021).

Williams, C. C., Kayaoglu, A. (2020). COVID-19 and undeclared work: Impacts and policy responses in Europe. The Service Industries Journal, 40 (15), 1-18.

Cited by:



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.

Visited Number: Web
Analytics JBHOST Stats